Origin of Numbers  Named and Unnamed Numbers started out as part of names  yoke of oxen, herd of cattle, gaggle of geese.
 Days of conch shells and taboos about counting.
Talley Sticks Though conventional wisdom for years said otherwise, "primative people" did count more specifically than "many."
 The Ishago Bone possibly of 20KYA, 20 thousand years ago, with primes 11, 13, 17, and 19 marked, and a crystal.
 35,000 BCE to 8,500 BCE  Talley marks made permanent and important math records.
Tokens Then Coins 10,000 BCE to 6,000 BCE  Tokens served as movable and permanent records.
 The use of tokens set the stage for the earliest writing.
 3000 BCE  Shekels, temple coins, were used in Sumeria.
 600 BCE  Minted staters were used in Lydia (Turkey) and the use of coins spread quickly there after.
Writing Numerals ADDITIVE SYSTEM, Egyptian, Greek [8], early Roman
 The order of the "symbols" doesn't matter though they are often ordered.
 MULTIPLICATIVE SYSTEM, Chinese, as in modern expanded notation
 Write from largest to smallest a string of pairs of "number of" then "value of symbols" to write the number.
 POSITIONAL SYSTEM, decimal, Greek & Roman Numerals
 Order or position does matter.
Egyptian Multiplication Eye of Horus and a memory trigger for the power series that facilitated multiplication and division.
 Used for division and multiplication and still used in Middle Ages as duplation and mediation.
 FIRST! statisticians and secretive about their work.
Abaxes (Sand Table), Reckoning Boards, Banks Sand Tables, or beaches, for drawing accurate, measurable scale drawings.
 Reckoning Boards, from the Egyptian, thorugh the Banks, merchant benches (as in bank rupt, bankrupt) of the Middle Ages.
 With calculi, pebbles, to compute.
 With choice of lines or spaces or both or vertical or horizonal orientation with whatever base is needed  guilder, pound, or shekel.
 Set the stage for the Roman handheld abacus and other abacuses.
Abacuses First handheld calculators.
 Great for speed, portability, shakey tables and tax assesors  think how easy a tith is to compute on a board or abacus.
Napier's Bones MAJOR COMPUTING ACHIEVEMENT! especially for division!
 Can you SEE the inspiration for log computation?
Slide Rules Take John Napier's natural log work and add the scales of Edmund Gunter and William Oughtred's paired Gunter scales and computation may be completed ala the sand table and scale drawing.
History
